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Punica granatum as a Source of Natural Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent; a Comprehensive Review on Related Investigations

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Abstract
BACKGROUND:

The consumption of natural antioxidants is increasing due to the demand and tendency to natural foods. Punica granatum L. [Punicaceae] is a fruit with various bioactive ingredients. The effectiveness of this plant has been proved against various disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, blood coagulation, infections, cancer, and dentistry. Among them, there are numerous researches on antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Subsequently, the present study aimed to compile a review of those properties to outline this herb as a possible natural antioxidant and preservative.
METHODS:

Synchronically, keywords 'Punica granatum' with antimicrobial, or antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and radical scavenging were searched through 'Scopus' database up to 31st September 2019. Papers focusing on agriculture, genetics, chemistry, and environmental sciences were excluded and also related papers were collected.
RESULTS:

Among 201 papers focusing on related activities, 111 papers have dealt with antioxidant activities focusing based on DPPH assay, 59 with antibacterial, on both gram+ and gram- bacteria, 24 with antifungal effects, mostly on Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, and 7 papers with antiviral activities. There were about 50 papers focusing on in-vivo antioxidant activities of this plant.
CONCLUSION:

Taken together, botanical parts of P. granatum have possessed notable radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities that with these properties, this plant can be introduced as a natural safe source of preservative and antioxidant. Accordingly, P. granatum can be applied as excipient with the aforementioned properties in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

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KEYWORDS:

Antifungal; Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Antiviral; Preservative; Punica granatum

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