There are studies that show that the concepts of epilepsy have been rooted in Persian medicine; Avicenna "Ibn-e-Sina"-one of the great Persian physicians in the Islamic golden age (9th-12th century AD)-has considered some types of epilepsy with the association of the stomach, the spleen, the "Maraqq," and the whole body which has not been reviewed properly. These organs influence on the brain and can cause epilepsy. This article presents concept of Maraqq-related epilepsy; according to Avicenna's view, "Maraqq" is a membranous structure which is located in the abdomen (equivalent of parietal peritoneum in current nomenclature). We discuss his viewpoint about the diagnosis and treatment of Maraqq-related epilepsy with focus on herbal remedies. The concept of a relationship between the "Maraqq" and the brain is well discussed in the old Persian medicine texts; however, it seems that further studies in this area are required to clarify Avicenna's view about the pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategies.
Avicenna; Epilepsy; Maraqq; Maraqq-related epilepsy; Persian medicine